Use in clinical context
Proteins are made by structures called ribosomes, which are found in the cytoplasm of the cell. The instructions to make proteins are encoded within DNA which is mainly found in the nucleus (a small amount is contained within mitochondria). This DNA cannot leave the nucleus, so the information is transcribed into messenger RNA that transmits it to the ribosome. By sequencing RNA, it is possible to establish which genes are actively producing proteins and which are not. This can be useful to establish aberrant gene activity and identify potential drug targets to inhibit or enhance gene activity to alter gene expression.