Use in clinical context
The final function of a protein is affected by more than just the gene that encodes it. Additional modifications are often made after the gene has been transcribed and then translated into a polypeptide chain.
These modifications can influence a range of properties of the protein, including protein folding, stability, interaction with other proteins and activity. Many post-translational modifications are carried out by enzymes.
Some post-translational modifications can be used as biomarkers for disease and there is active research into their effectiveness to treat a range of conditions, including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.