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Two chromosomes in a pair – normally one inherited from the mother and one from the father. For example, the two copies of Chromosome 1 in a cell would be referred to as homologous chromosomes.

Use in clinical context

The chromosomes in a homologous pair each have the same genes in the same order, but there may be variation between them, resulting in different alleles. Some of the variants in these alleles might have functional implications while others will not.

During meiosis, homologous chromosomes line up and recombination occurs between them. This results in gametes with unique combinations of alleles on each chromosome and therefore unique individuals.


Last updated on 23rd September, 2021